what is flooding in geography

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If a basin has very dense vegetation cover, the vegetation will intercept precipitation and store it, reducing the volume of water entering a river. Whether this is a human factor is debatable as, while climate change is definitely happening, whether it’s the result of human activity is still uncertain. Map from Google. Floods… The increase in discharge can be triggered by several events. In general, a large flood has a large recurrence interval so it isn’t very frequent. River words. North Cornwall Council provided accommodation for 11 tourists who were unable to return home after the flood. The Kosi River had flood defences that were supposed to handle approximately 30,000m3 of water per second7 but were breached at a fraction of that capacity suggesting that the defences were defective or poorly maintained. If the basin is circul… In doing so, it flooded a large portion of Bihar. Boscastle is located in southwest England less than a kilometre from the coastline. New bridges and roads were constructed to a higher standard than those that had previously been constructed. Characteristics of floods – analysis and interpretation of flood hydrographs. We’d describe it as a 1 in 100 year flood. A map of Bihar showing the major rivers flowing through the state. Map modified from this map by Nilfanion/Wikipedia. Geography. Monsoon season in India occurs in the late summer months and is caused by the seasonal reversal of winds in the area. In this KS2 Geography Flooding Lesson Pack, children consider the consequences of too much water in a given area by looking at the flooding in Boscastle and by carrying out a flood readiness survey in school. This pack includes guides, lesson plan templates, activity sheets and more to teach students about different types of flooding, what causes flooding, and flood … Follow Super Brainy Beans's board Rivers & flooding on Pinterest. For a hugely detailed list of the responses laid out by the World Bank, have a look at this PDF file. River Keyword search Enter one of the keywords listed on the page and find out what they mean. Volcanoes. Reconstruction didn’t begin until 2005 as the council waited on a report from hydrologists to determine the recurrence interval of the flood. Have an idea for this article? Furthermore, cattle are often killed by floods which can lead to people starving because they either don’t have a source of food or don’t have a source of income to buy food with. The location of Bihar in India. The flood killed 500-2000 people. During a flood, sewage pipes are often broken and raw sewage leaks into the floodwater. The biggest, most obvious effect is death. Plants slow down water as it runs over the land, giving it time to enter the ground. 3 million people were made homeless and sent to refuge camps. When a dam breaks along a reservoir, flooding can be catastrophic. The Kosi River is highlighted in bright blue. To stop roads and streets from flooding, humans will often build storm drains that collect rainwater and channel it into a river or stream. In a LEDC, you’re generally going to get much more deaths than you would in a MEDC. Managing flooding in urban, rural and informal settlement areas. Figures vary because government figures don’t include missing people while figures from aid agencies do. Tidal flooding, or sunny day flooding, hits during periods of time that people least expect. While people associate flooding with storms, hurricanes, or certain seasons, sunny day flooding can occur on days when there hasn’t been any rainfall or a cloud in the sky. Rivers and floods for kids KS2 learning at Primary School. Flash floods induce severe impacts in both the built and the natural environment. This leads to a sudden and large increase in the river’s discharge which can result in a flash flood. Flooding … The rain fell over Bodmin Moor, an area composed of impermeable shale that is has sparse vegetation cover. Case study of a flood in South Africa. Distribution of cities in the world. Flood risk and flood management. Floods happen on flat or low-lying areas when rainwater falls, or snow melts more rapidly than the water can either infiltrate (soak in) or run off (flow across) the ground. Reasons for housing shortage . This is a great website on managing floods and includes case studies. Floods occur when the discharge volume of the river becomes too large for the channel to contain. After heavy precipitation, the discharge will rise even more and floods are likely, especially at confluences (where a tributary meets the river) as this is where discharge is highest. In LEDCs, famines can follow floods which can lead to even more deaths. ↩, For reference, 1ℓ of (pure) water weighs 1kg. Waters may build up gradually over a period of weeks, when a long period of rainfall or snow-melt fills the ground with water and raises stream levels. By early 2005, power and water was back up. Flooding can also be divided into different categories according to their location: 1. Housing. This provides a useful set of visual aids to help in teaching the various forms natural flood management can take. The flooding was worsened by the deforestation that had taken place in the Kosi River’s drainage basin. For example, floods are welcomed by farmers in Asia as floods support the cultivation of rice crops. The flood will have washed sewage and pollutants into the Kosi River, polluting it and killing off some wildlife. River facts. Human changes to the environment often increase the intensity and frequency of flooding… Rivers are dynamic beasts, they change and when they change, so does how they flood. Map modified from this map by PlaneMad/Wikipedia. Raw sewage was washed out to sea and into the River Valency. 3. Bihar is located in the north east of India, to the south of the Himalayas bordering Nepal. Map modified from this map by NordNordWest/Wikipedia. A shortage of clean drinking water and the warm climate meant that water born and vector diseases were easily spread. They build up their own be… People may also line a river bank with levees, high walls that keep the stream within its banks during floods. Floodways can in some cases be occasional, which means the channel is dry for part of the year. The vegetation cover in a basin will affect flooding. A floodplain comprises of two sections. Earthquakes . Floods are a natural part of the water cycle, but they can be terrifying forces of destruction. It also helped in creating plans to help improve the quality of living to standards above those seen before the disaster. 76 cars were washed out to sea because of the low lying nature of the town’s car park. Rescue services can be dispatched to a flood quickly in a MEDC whereas in a LEDC, rescue teams mightn’t arrive until several hours after the flood started. Floods usually occur when precipitation falls more quickly than that water can be absorbed into the ground or carried away by rivers or … River floods. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 German license. Consequences of housing shortage. If a flood happens in an empty field, then the damage from flooding may be relatively mild. This is due to the amount of water that rivers bring with them, because of heavy rainfall or melting snow in the mountainous regions. (Geography) When flood risk transforms a territory: the Lully effect (Geography) Links. River Thames. River floods. Here we look closely at river floods and flood damage to help you learn more about the Geography topic of rivers. Living in their homes wasn’t really viable at this stage. The river was forced to flow into a channel that it hadn’t flown through in over 100 years. As well as prolonged rainfall, brief periods of heavy rain can also lead to floods. Rivers. 11 Days after the flood people were allowed to return to their homes to salvage their belongings. Not only this, it can lead to a decline in the local economy as businesses are unable to operate without power or road connections. Aid agencies were dispatched to Bihar and were especially important in ensuring that the lower classes of society were given aid. Quizlet on housing. Coasts. Plants and fish along the Colorado River, for example, depend on seasonal flooding to rearrange sand bars. An influx of funding to a less developed area from charities and NGOs after a flood can result in new infrastructure being constructed that is substantially better than the previously existing infrastructure. 6. Through Bihar flows the Kosi River, a tributary to the Ganges. Floodwater that is contaminated with sewage will pollute rivers and land when it drains back into the river. A combination of the remnants of Hurricane Alex and convectional rainfall triggered by the intense heating of the ground by the summer heat led to heavy rainfall over the south of England. When the snow does melt, large volumes of meltwater will enter the river increasing its discharge and triggering floods. The meltwater can enter rivers and greatly increase the river’s discharge leading to a flood. Large chunks of debris and objects like cars can easily get picked up by floodwater and can easily kill a person should they get hit by the debris. The Laingsburg flood (25 January 1981) … We’re probably not helping but keep in mind that the planet’s climate would be changing regardless of humanity’s existence because at this moment in time, we’re still in the tail end of an ice age. This, in turn, creates new economic opportunities in an area by, for example, creating new trade routes. The causes of the flooding is rainfall. The economic impact of infrastructure damage and unemployment is larger in MEDCs since these countries have modern and expensive infrastructure in place. Read it here. In the sense of flowing water, the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Awe and wonder. New flood defences were constructed and people were educated on how to maintain them. Erupting volcanoes can trigger very large flash floods called jökulhlaups when glaciers are partially or even fully melted by an erupting volcano or some other form of geothermal activity. ↩, I know it was the middle of summer and it was hot but this is Britain we’re talking about. Zadie smith essay on writing: an interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology 3rd ed essay on electronic money, what's an interpretive essay how to incorporate a poem in an … Shortages of food and emergency grain quickly developed. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 German license. How and where do people live? Flooding is an annual event as the rivers burst their banks. Although many floods are triggered directly by precipitation just a few hours after it falls some floods can be triggered by precipitation that fell many months ago. ↩, This formula is for events with a magnitude (in this case discharge). The monsoon brought heavy rainfall to the foothills of the Himalayas and dramatically increased the discharge of the Kosi. Regular news stories about flooding in the UK make this a topical issue - one to which many students can relate. From a teaching and learning perspective, flooding offers several important opportunities because, in order to make sense of these issues, students … Its borders are highlighted in blue. These sediments provide habitats for animals, and the periodic movement of sediment is crucial to the lives of several types of organisms. During the months of August and September in 2008 there was a long period of heavy rainfall along the foothills of the Himalayas. Houses were flooded and silt, sewage & debris was deposited inside of them. 1. The lack of vegetation cover meant that rain water wasn’t intercepted and easily flowed into the river via surface runoff. Flooding occurs when the amount of water in a river exceeds the capacity of the channel, causing it to burst its banks onto the flood plain. The permeability of the soil and rock in a drainage basin is a big factor in flooding. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide.Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health. Using Google Earth. The Kosi River is highlighted in bright blue. Rainwater will enter the river much faster than it would if the ground wasn’t saturated leading to higher discharge levels and floods. This isn’t the case in LEDCs but that’s only because people don’t have a lot to lose in the first place. After the events of the flood, people were less willing to travel to Boscastle because of the (low) risk of another flood occurring. Lead teacher Anil Sarna asked his local Year 5 and Year 6 pupils to see if they could work out what causes flooding, testing what they learnt using a series of experiments. This causes major problems for … How might this be linked to rising sea Flash flooding also occurred as river banks burst and … Prince Charles visited the town 2 days after the flood and donated a large sum of money to the town. A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. 1,500 soldiers were sent to help rescue citizens and disperse aid. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several different ways. Similarly, if the river floods onto farmland, the water can be polluted by pesticides and other chemicals sprayed onto the farmland that, when drained back into the river, can pollute it and kill off wildlife that inhabits the river. Whilst spring melt, dams bursting and heavy rains will increase the amount of water in the river channel, many river channels can cope with this. The rainfall ultimately led to widespread floods in Bihar, an Indian state, that made millions homeless and claimed the lives of hundreds of people. The New Madrid Overflow in the image above was created with the recognition that the Mississippi River sometimes simply cannot be contained by levees and must be allowed to flood.Not all the consequences of flooding are negative. Vegetation helps bind soil too. If the floodwater is polluted by sewage, it will contaminate the farmland and make any food grown on it dangerous to eat. The first is simply the primary channel of the waterway, called the floodway. First, it contaminates not just floodwater but drinking water too which leads to a spread of waterborne diseases such as cholera especially in LEDCs where emergency drinking water mightn’t be available. Second, the sewage gets into people’s homes which is just horrible, disgusting and incredibly difficult to clean. Insurance claims came in between £15,000 and £30,000 per property. If the basin is circular in shape, the precipitation will enter the river at roughly the same time because all points in the basin are equidistant from one another. On the 16th of August, 2004, the small town of Boscastle was almost completely destroyed in the space of just two hours when a 1 in 400 year flash flood occurred at around 3pm and inundated most of the town. Flooding Can Help Protect Wetlands From Climate Change # geography # wetlands Targeted flooding may be one tool that conservationists and wetland restoration specialists have to make wetland areas more resilient in the face of climate change. is actually just a measurement of the volume of water that flows in a river every second This may happen if the underlying rock is impermeable —lacking pores, tiny holes that allow water through. Page 152 Turn to: Page 152 of Sec 2 Geography textbook 3. This improves the fertility of the floodplain and can improve agricultural yield in an area (assuming the floodwater wasn’t polluted). Features of cities. Flooding can have numerous social, economic and environmental effects that can vary depending on the demographics of a population and the economic development of an area. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. Flash floods are sudden and unexpected, taking place when very intense rains fall over a very brief period. When the plan to reconstruct infrastructure was laid out, it was expected that 90 bridges and 290km of road would be reconstructed, benefiting 2 million people. The point I’m trying to get at is that the recurrence interval isn’t the most useful thing in the world because it’s just an average and averages can (and often do) have anomalies. There was the potential for insurance prices to rise as a result of the flood but this was unlikely because of the rarity of a flood of this scale. The Indian government created a £115m relief package to be sent to Bihar. ↩, Weird number, I know, I’m just trying to produce a nice round answer here. Unemployment can even increase if businesses are unable to fully recover from a flood. The approximate location of Boscastle in the UK. Flood risk and flood management are popular issues in the geography curriculum. If a river’s drainage basin or floodplain has been heavily urbanised, a river becomes much more prone to flooding. Floods kill more people each year than any other natural disaster. River waterfalls. Aid agencies provided rescue efforts, food, clean water supplies and shelter. Using the formula, this means that a flood of this size is expected to occur once every 100 years ($$\frac{199+1}{2}$$). Japan has seen its highest rainfall levels in decades with some areas receiving 10.4 inches in a 3-hour period. Bridges frequently collapse during a flood as they aren’t designed to withstand the high discharge of the river. The accuracy of the recurrence interval is dependent on the amount of historical data available about previous floods. Flooding as a source of nutrients was important to Egyptians along the Nile River until the Aswan Dam was built in the 1960s. The size and shape of a river’s drainage basin dictates how much precipitation the river can receive and how quickly it will arrive (the lag time). Scientists point to this trend of sunny day flooding as one way that climate change is affecting our natural environment. The size and shape of a river’s drainage basin dictates how much precipitation the river can receive and how quickly it will arrive (the lag time). Site design and development by Alex Jackson (), Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, Praise and donation from their duke (The Guardian), Villagers clean up after flash floods (The Guardian), Boscastle: safe to rebuild (The Guardian), Boscastle reborn as a green beacon (The Guardian), Displaced Boscastle residents return home (The Guardian), ‘No deaths in Boscastle flood’ (The Guardian), Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 German, India: Untouchables suffer ‘relief discrimination’ after flood (The Guardian), India: Up to 2,000 feared dead in Bihar floods (The Guardian), Heavy rain stalls Indian flood relief (The Guardian), Indian government hits back at claims of inadequate supplies in flood zones (The Guardian), Tensions rise over Indian flood relief (The Guardian), Disease outbreak feared in wake of flood (The Guardian), Indian monsoon floods leave a million homeless (The Guardian), Government of Bihar, World Bank & Global Facility for Disaster Reduction & Recovery Report, Proposed Emergency Recovery (The World Bank). Make sure your print out your geographyalltheway worksheet and put it into your files in the rivers section. The River’s floodplain had been urbanised reducing infiltration and increasing surface runoff. The council invested money into improving Boscastle’s flood defences and the Environmental Agency also built new flood defences. The recurrence interval can be calculated using the following formula4: $$T$$ is the recurrence interval, $$n$$ is the number of years on record and $$m$$ is the ranking of the flood relative to all the other floods on record for a specific river. Hugely detailed list of what is flooding in geography flood will have a smaller and more frequent and more intense storms that help... Smaller and more frequent and more intense storms that can lead to flash floods induce severe in. Example, creating new trade routes especially flash floods are among Earth 's most common–and most destructive–natural.. 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